Seen about 10-15 seconds before and after totality, Baily’s beads are little bead-like blobs of light at the edge of the Moon. These happen because the gaps in the mountains and valleys on the Moon’s surface allow sunlight to pass through in some places but not others.
As the Moon moves to cover the entire disc of the Sun, Baily’s beads disappear, leaving one last bead a few seconds before totality. At this point in the eclipse, the Sun’s corona forms a ring around the Moon. The ring around the Moon and the leftover Baily’s bead gives the appearance of a diamond ring.
The Sun’s chromosphere
The Sun’s atmosphere has 3 layers: the photosphere, the chromosphere and the corona. The chromosphere, which gives out a reddish glow can only be seen for a few seconds right after the diamond ring disappears during a total eclipse of the Sun.
The Sun’s corona
Like the chromosphere, the Sun’s corona is only visible during a Total Solar Eclipse. It can be seen as a faint ring of rays surrounding the dark Moon during totality.
About one minute before and after totality, moving wavy lines of alternating light and dark can be seen on plain-colored surfaces. These shadow bands are the result of the light emitted from a thin solar crescent being refracted by the Earth’s atmosphere.